Transferring Property Before Bankruptcy Can Be A Bad Idea
Modern bankruptcy laws permit the debtor to keep certain property necessary to maintain a modest standard of living. These laws, called exemptions, protect property from collectors so that the debtor has a reasonable chance at a fresh financial start after bankruptcy. However, while these protections afford the honest debtor a fresh start, some individuals try to get a head start by transferring property in an attempt to hide it from the bankruptcy process. As you can guess, concealing assets from the federal bankruptcy court is a bad idea.
Section 548 of the Bankruptcy Code endows the bankruptcy court trustee with the power to undo a fraudulent transfer made within two years of the bankruptcy filing. Fraudulent transfers include any transfer made with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud creditors; or transfers made while the debtor is insolvent which do not involve a fair value exchange. While the lookback period is set at two years by section 548, another section of the Bankruptcy Code (section 544) permits the trustee to apply state law to undo a fraudulent transfer. In many cases the state law lookback period is longer than two years.
There is generally no issue if you have sold property and received a fair price. However, if you have transferred property in a less than honest fashion, the transfer may be undone. For instance, if you sell your car worth $5,000 to your brother for $500, and then file bankruptcy two months later, the trustee may seize the car from your brother and sell it to pay your creditors. Likewise, deeding jointly owned real estate to a non-filing spouse prior to filing bankruptcy can create a thorny legal dilemma.
Every individual bankruptcy case must include a Statement of Financial Affairs which asks the debtor to list all property transferred within two years before the bankruptcy filing. It is important to answer this question honestly, and to discuss any recent property transfer with your bankruptcy attorney.
If you are considering bankruptcy, consult with an experienced bankruptcy attorney and discuss your legal exemptions. In many cases your attorney can legally protect your property without the need to sell or transfer. Your attorney can advise you on the best course of action to protect your property and restructure your financial obligations.